Antiviral properties, interferon-inducing, immunomodulatory activity
Pathogen:
Influenza pneumonia in mice

Result, opinion:
BED provides immune modeling effect on phagocytosis in intact animals as well as in mice on influenza pneumonia model. BED more actively enhances individual cell activity: the value of the FI and the FF in infected animals is almost 2 times higher than those in intact mice. Therefore , BED activates the main function of macrophages – phagocytosis.




Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.
“The report on the study of dry birch bark extract effect on the factors of non-specific cell-mediated immunity on the model of influenza pneumonia in mice”
The center for Medicinal Chemistry
The Drug Quality Assurance center under the direction of DQAC FSUE CMC-ARPCSR DPS E. Degterev.


Pathogen:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in vivo, in vitro

Result, opinion:
All samples of dry birch bark extract induced a high level of synthesis of interferon (IFN) in both intraperitoneal and oral administration. The dose dependence of IFN level points to a direct connection of the drug with the induction of IFN. No clear dose dependence with a maximum content of betulin in the preparation may point at achieving of saturation in the ratio IFN inducer-receptors. An important property of birch bark extract is its ability to induce the synthesis of IFN administration by the oral route.
Strong evidence was received that the drug is able to reduce the antigenic and infectious HCV activity both in in vitro tests in SEK cell cultures infected with HCV's cytopathogenic variant and in infections caused by HCV in mice weighing 18-20 g.



A preventive effect of the drug in HCV infection in cell cultures and in animals infected with HCV body was detected.


Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.
“Interferon-inducing properties of dry birch bark extract and its effect on experimental infection caused by the hepatitis C virus”
“Research report of interferon-inducing activity of dry birch bark extract drug containing “betulin” in experiments in vivo”

Institute of Virology after D. Ivanovsky RAMS N. Nosik, P. Deryabin and etc.




Pathogen:
Hepatitis C virus  
Result, opinion:

Studies have indicated that prophylactic use of the drug “dry birch bark extract”, as a rule leads to lower rates of infection caused by HCV in the body of HCV -infected mice.



Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.  
“The study of the preventive effect of birch bark extract containing betulin in experimental infection caused by the hepatitis C virus in mice body”  
Under the leadership of Director SU Research Institute of Virology after D. Ivanovsky RAMS, RAMS Academicial D. Lvov.

Pathogen:
Hepatitis C virus  
Result, opinion:
The antiviral properties of the drug in regard to the infection caused by hepatitis C virus in white mice body was found.
Antiviral properties of the preparation were demonstrated using the comparative analysis of average data study of antigenic and infectious HCV activities in serum, liver and brain in animals receiving and not receiving the drug.



It has been found that the abolition of the drug to animals for 10 days did not lead to the full restoration of antigenic or infectious HCV activities in the studied organs and tissues. It is shown that the antiviral effect of dry birch bark extract maintained during this period of time (observation period).


Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.  
“The study of the antiviral activity of birch bark extract containing betulin, in experimental infections caused by hepatitis B virus in mice”
Under the leadership of Director SU Research Institute of Virology after D. Ivanovsky RAMS, RAMS Academicial D. Lvov.



Pathogen:
Hepatitis C virus  
Result, opinion:  
BED containing preparations 72 and 98 do not have toxic properties for  SEK cell cultures at the concentrations used.
BED preparations 72 and 98 have antiviral activity against infections caused by hepatitis C virus in the SEK cell cultures.

BED 72 dose-dependently induces a reduction of HCV infectious activity for 2,5-3,3 lg when administered immediately after infection of SEK cells with HCV.
BED 98 induces a decrease in HCV infectious activity for 4,2 lg when administered at a dilution of 1:20, immediately after infection of SEK cells with HCV .
BED 98 steadily reduces infectious HCV properties with prophylactic use : 24 hours prior to infection of SEK cells with HCV.
Various concentrations of BED 98 does not cause an increase in HCV infected SEK cells ability to produce infectious virus.




Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.  
“The study of antiviral activity of dry birch bark extract 72% and 98% drug in experimental infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cultures of swine embryonic kidney cells (SEK)”
Under the leadership of Director SU Research Institute of Virology after D. Ivanovsky RAMS, RAMS Academicial D. Lvov.



Pathogen:
Herpes simplex virus , in vivo

Result, opinion:
The results indicate that the combined use of " dry birch bark extract" and acyclovir (100 mg/kg) per os for prophylactic and therapeutic scheme ( 48, 24 and 1 hour before and 24,48 and 72 hours after infection with herpes simplex virus) is as effective as acyclovir used at a dose of 200 mg / kg.


Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.  
“The report on the study of dry birch bark extract's preventive and therapeutic action against herpes simplex virus on the model of herpes encephalitis in mice”
The center for Medicinal Chemistry
The Drug Quality Assurance Center under the direction of DQAC FSUE CMC-ARPCSR DPS E. Degterev.




Pathogen:
Herpes virus , in vitro

Result, opinion:
A compound of formula (I), wherein both X and Y are H is betulin (LUP- 20 (29 )-en-3,28 -diol)
Compounds of formula (I) may be administered as pharmaceutical compositions, topically or systemically, and are effective for treatment (block) or inhibition of herpes infection, including active or latent infections. Susceptible infections of herpes include HSV-1, HSV-2, V2V, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV4 ( Epstein- Barr virus). They are particularly effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2 .



Source:





US patent US 5750578 A


Pathogen:
Influenza virus , in vivo

Result, opinion:
“Dry birch bark extract has a preventive effect against influenza virus on the model of influenza pneumonia in mice using the viral infection dose of 10 LD 50. The protective effect is 50 - 70 % depending on the used dose of BED”.



Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.  
“The report on the study of the effect of a dose of dry birch bark extract on preventive action against influenza”
The center for Medicinal Chemistry
The Drug Quality Assurance Center under the direction of DQAC FSUE CMC-ARPCSR DPS E. Degterev.



Pathogen:
Influenza А/Aichi/68(H3N2), 10LD50 virus


Result, opinion:
60 % of the surviving animals receiving the extract , with total loss of control.
50 % -70 % of the surviving animals receiving the extract , with total loss of control.

Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.  
“The study of preventive effect of birch bark  extract against influenza virus”
“The study of the influence of a birch bark extract dose on the preventive effect of the flu”



Pathogen:
Influenza virus
A/duck/Altai/1285/91 (H5N3)
A/FPV/Rostok/(H7N1)

Result, opinion:
Antiviral activity against avian influenza viruses in eggs was revealed, the ability of viruses to interact with red blood cells in chickens and reproducing activity of viruses reduced.


Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.
“About the study of antiviral activity of birch bark extract containing betulin against avian influenza viruses A/H5 or A/H7”

SU Research Institute of Virology


Pathogen:
Influenza virus
A/duck/Altai/1285/91 (H5N3),  1 LD70


Result, opinion:
The protective effect was 70% as compared with the control, therapeutic and prophylactic administration of the extract was accompanied by a significant decrease in the intensity of lung lesions in treated animals.


Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.
“About the study of therapeutic and prophylactic activity of extract containing betulin against avian influenza viruses A/H5 or A/H7 in experiments in vivo.”
SU Research Institute of Virology after D. Ivanovsky RAMS, 2005


Pathogen:
Influenza virus
A highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 selected in July 2005 in Novosibirsk region, 1,0 TCD 50


Result, opinion:
The data on antiviral properties of the preparation containing betulin in respect of infection caused by H5N1 avian influenza virus in cell cultures were received.

Source:
“Birch World” Ltd.
“Inactivating effect of the drug containing betulin, on infectious properties of highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza A virus ( H5N1 )”.
SU Research Institute of Virology after D. Ivanovsky RAMS, 2006


Pathogen:
Influenza virus
A highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A virus H5N1, 106 LD 50/ml

Result, opinion:
The drug has a protective effect , increasing the dose led to increased virucidal action.

Source:
“The effect of betulin containing extract on the progress of experimental infection in chickens caused by influenza virus H5N1”
FSI ARRIAH, Animal Welfare Institute, Vladimir, 2006

Pathogen:
Influenza viruses type A/Leningrad/134/72/ H3N2/  and type B/Hong Kong/5/72


Result, opinion:
Betulin has no activity against influenza virus.
From the investigated triterpenoids the derivatives of Olean and Ursan are of the greatest interest.


Source:
The investigation of anti-influenza activity of triterpenoids
Platonov, A. Zorin and etc.
Research Institute RAMS, Research Institute of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University.

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